NOVEMBER 9th, 70th anniversary of KRISTALLNACHT!! Read how in a post war period much like our own, Europe went through much the same sequence: A WORLD WAR (1914-1918,) leaves countries broke, loan rates fluctuate too severely causing massive inflation, higher prices for everything, money worth nothing, then a tidal wave of foreclosures, the closing down of food-producing farms, endemic famine leading to dumping humans in death camps which in turn causes another world war.
In such times, note how it only takes ONE act of violence to initiate mob rule, utter SOCIETAL CHAOS and blood running in the streets as well as organized genocide in camps. NOVEMBER 9th 2008 will be the 70th anniversary of a l7 year old boy named GREENSPAN killing one German, and thusly giving Goebbels & Hitler an excuse to attack, burn down, lock up and murder every Jew in Germany/Austria. They started by cleverly using a network of "ostensible MOBS" to burn down every Synagogue and break windows on every Jewish owned shop in every city of those two countries. Then they carted the Jews off to camps.
This single event, KRISTALLNACHT, phony from the gitgo, would end up destroying the world, killing twenty million people in WWII, all from one boy's hysterical, unreasonable, violent act. GREENSPAN! What are the chances that the same name shows up in our time tied to a tidal wave of bad mortgages, foreclosures, farms bankrupt, famine and such? HUH?
This original 1938 Greenspan lit a spark which struck TINDER from WWI. which had bankrupted, decimated GERMANY, a country with MASSIVE inflation, (Wars sure eat up the dough don't they?) That era had the foreclosed farmers losing their farms, banks not knowing how to grow food so very little food being grown, massive famine. The HOLOCAUST started in a desperate society where one MASTER RACE hated the dark haired race inside its borders and that one spark enabled the WHITER race to "EXTINCT " the Darker race! The Jews had their rights taken away immediately and were sent to camps miles from their homes near Polish border in camps. For no reason, No fifth column, no war. Just NO RIGHTS. Greenspan shot one Nazi and bingo. All the Jews were led off.
A mere 70 years stand between you and this event. We have a mortgage meltdown, post war inflation we are about to have evicted, landless farmers here and food prices tripling or quadrupling. So you're not safe and you should read up on a.)how societies go up in explosions over the littlest damn thing so you don't become part of the MOB, and b.) How to survive in hard times.
To study the history of that meltdown, imagine you're back in Germany in 33. Hitler has just been voted in as Chancellor of Germany, and everyone adors him. He began promulgating laws against Germany's Jews, starting slow mind you, with a one-day boycott against Jewish shops, a law was passed against kosher butchering and Jewish children began experiencing restrictions in public schools.
By 1935, the Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of German citizenship, the right to marry Aryans. Class discrimination, not that we have any of that HERE except with Muslims.. By 1936, Jews were prohibited from participation in parliamentary elections and signs reading "Jews Not Welcome" appeared in many German cities. (Incidentally, these signs were taken down in the late summer in preparation for the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin) anticipating international tourism.
In the first half of 1938, numerous laws were passed restricting Jewish economic activity and occupational opportunities. In July, 1938, a law was passed (effective January 1, 1939) requiring all Jews to carry
identification cards. On October 28, 17,000 Jews of Polish citizenship, many of whom had been living in Germany for decades, were arrested and relocated across the Polish border. The Polish government refused to admit
them so they were interned in "relocation camps" on the Polish frontier. That was days before KRISTALLNACHT so you can see how Hitler was thinking.
Among the deportees was Zindel Grynszpan, who had been born in western
Poland and had moved to Hanover, where he established a small store, in
1911. On the night of October 27, 1938, Zindel Grynszpan and his family were
forced out of their home by German police. His store and the family's
possessions were confiscated and they were forced to move over the Polish
border. Zindel Grynszpan's seventeen-year-old son, Herschel, was living
with an uncle in Paris. When he received news of his family's expulsion, he
went to the German embassy in Paris on November 7, intending to assassinate
the German Ambassador to France. Upon discovering that the Ambassador was
not in the embassy, he settled for a lesser official, Third Secretary Ernst
vom Rath. Rath, was critically wounded and died two days later, on November 9.
The assassination provided Goebbels, Hitler's Chief of Propaganda, with
the excuse he needed to launch a pogrom against German Jews. Hitler was
just leaving the evening festivities in Munich on November 8 when
Goebbels brought him word that Rath had died. Grynszpan's provocation
could be turned to good account, just as van der Lubbe's firing of the
Reichstag had been, Goebbels argued. For years the party had been
fighting a futile battle against Germans shopping in Jewish stores,
where prices were low and quality better. Goebbels's perpetual
propaganda that the failure of the standard of living to improve was due
to the plotting of the international Jewish financiers was wearing thin.
Here was the opportunity to give the average Nazi a chance to vent his
spleen in a `spontaneous' outburst of indignation, to terrorize the Jews
into a mass exodus, to take the wealthy ones hostage for ransom, and to
dramatize to Jews in other countries what would happen to their
coreligionists in Germany if they did not cease to speak out and halt
their economic boycott.
Hitler, in a state of high excitement, agreed. To him, the assassination
was not the act of a desperate Jewish youth, but a conspiracy by the
`International Jews against the Third Reich and, symbolically, against
the Fuehrer himself. THE ORDER went out from HEYDRICH in BERLIN, see it,
This pogrom has come to be called Kristallnacht, "the Night of Broken
Glass." And it happened simultaneously in every city, including Vienna
Austria, so it was orchestrated from a central command point.
On the nights of November 9 and 10, gangs of Nazi youth roamed through
Jewish neighborhoods breaking windows of Jewish businesses and homes,
burning synagogues and looting. IN EVERY CITY ACROSS GERMANY. In all
1,350 synagogues were destroyed and almost 7,500 Jewish businesses were
destroyed. 26,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps,
SEE the 1938 CAMP
Jews were physically attacked and beaten and 91 died (Snyder, Louis L.
Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Paragon House, 1989
The official German position on these events, which were clearly
orchestrated by Goebbels, was that they were spontaneous outbursts. The
Fuehrer, Goebbels reported to Party officials in Munich, "has decided that
such demonstrations are not to be prepared or organized by the party, but
so far as they originate spontaneously, they are not to be discouraged
either." (Conot, Robert E. Justice at Nuremberg. New York: Harper & Row,
Three days later, on November 12, Goering called a meeting of the top Nazi
leadership to assess the damage done during the night and place
responsibility for it. Present at the meeting were Goering, Goebbels,
Reinhard Heydrich, Walter Funk and other ranking Nazi officials. The intent
of this meeting was two-fold: to make the Jews responsible for
Kristallnacht and to use the events of the preceding days as a rationale
for promulgating a series of antisemitic laws which would, in effect,
remove Jews from the German economy. An interpretive transcript of this
meeting is provided by Robert Conot, Justice at Nuremberg, New York: Harper
and Row, 1983:164-172):
`Gentlemen! Today's meeting is of a decisive nature,' Goering
announced. `I have received a letter written on the Fuehrer's orders
requesting that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, coordinated
and solved one way or another.'
`Since the problem is mainly an economic one, it is from the economic
angle it shall have to be tackled. Because, gentlemen, I have had enough of
these demonstrations! They don't harm the Jew but me, who is the final
authority for coordinating the German economy. `If today a Jewish shop is
destroyed, if goods are thrown into the street, the insurance companies
will pay for the damages; and, furthermore, consumer goods belonging to the
people are destroyed. If in the future, demonstrations which are necessary
occur, then, I pray, that they be directed so as not to hurt us.
`Because it's insane to clean out and burn a Jewish warehouse, then
have a German insurance company make good the loss. And the goods which I
need desperately, whole bales of clothing and whatnot, are being burned.
And I miss them everywhere. I may as well burn the raw materials before
`I should not want to leave any doubt, gentlemen, as to the aim of
today's meeting. We have not come together merely to talk again, but to
make decisions, and I implore competent agencies to take all measures for
the elimination of the Jew from the German economy, and to submit them to
It was decided at the meeting that, since Jews were to blame for these
events, they be held legally and financially responsible for the damages
incurred by the pogrom. Accordingly, a "fine of 1 billion marks was levied
for the slaying of Vom Rath, and 6 million marks paid by insurance
companies for broken windows was to be given to the state coffers. (Snyder,
Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Paragon House,
Kristallnacht turns out to be a crucial turning point in German policy
regarding the Jews and may be considered as the actual beginning of what is
now called the Holocaust.
1. By now it is clear to Hitler and his top advisors that forced
immigration of Jews out of the Reich is not a feasible option.
2. Hitler is already considering the invasion of Poland.
3. Numerous concentration camps and forced labor camps are already in
4. The Nuremberg Laws are in place.
5. The doctrine of lebensraum has emerged as a guiding principle of
Hitler's ideology. And,
6. The passivity of the German people in the face of the events of
Kristallnacht made it clear that the Nazis would encounter little
opposition -- even from the German churches.
Following the meeting, a wide-ranging set of antisemitic laws were passed
which had the clear intent, in Goering's words, of "Aryanizing" the German
economy. Over the next two or three months, the following measures were put
into effect (cf., Burleigh and Wippermann, The Racial State: Germany,
1933-1945. New York:Cambridge, 1991:92-96):
1. Jews were required to turn over all precious metals to the
2. Pensions for Jews dismissed from civil service jobs were arbitrarily
3. Jewish-owned bonds, stocks, jewelry and art works can be alienated
only to the German state.
4. Jews were physically segregated within German towns.
5. A ban on the Jewish ownership of carrier pigeons.
6. The suspension of Jewish driver's licenses.
7. The confiscation of Jewish-owned radios.
8. A curfew to keep Jews of the streets between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m.
in the summer and 8:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. in the winter.
9. Laws protecting tenants were made non-applicable to Jewish tenants.
One final note on the November 12 meeting is of critical importance. In the
meeting, Goering announced, "I have received a letter written on the
Fuehrer's orders requesting that the Jewish question be now, once and for
all, coordinated and solved one way or another." The path to the "Final
Solution" has now been chosen. And, all the bureaucratic mechanisms for its
implementation were now in place.
It should be noted that there is some controversy among Holocaust scholars
as to the origin, intent and appropriateness of the term Kristallnacht. The
term, after all, was coined by Walter Funk at the November 12 Nazi meeting
following the pogrom of November 8-10. The crucial question is whether the
term was a Nazi euphemism for an all-out pogrom against German Jews and
whether the Nazis used the term in a derisive manner. There is considerable
evidence that both of the above questions have an affirmative answer.
Holocaust, and Kristallnacht survivor, Ernest Heppner made the following
observation in a recent (June, 1995) exchange of ideas on the Internet
Holocaust Discussion List:
...as an eyewitness I was very emotionally involved in this event and
its consequences. Like everyone else here in the United States, for some 50
years I called those horrible days and nights Kristallnacht. I changed my
mind reluctantly when, during my research, I discovered Goering's intent to
use this designation to ridicule this event.
The following sources should be of interest to the subscribers of this
"Die Juden in Deutschland 1933-1945", herausgegeben von Wolfgang Benz,
Verlag C.H. Beck, Munich 1989, part VI, pages 499-544, Der November- pogrom
1938. The second sentence of this chapter begins: "Der Novem- berpogrom,
als "Reichkristallnacht" im Umgangstonverniedlicht..." (The Novemberpogrom
was "prettified" in the vernacular as crystal night.")
Chapter 6, titled "Die 'Kristallnacht' als Anfang vom Ende", (crystal
night as the beginning of the end) starts: "Man kann den November- pogrom
als ein Ritual oeffentlicher Demueting deuten..." (The Novemberpogrom can
be explained as a ritual for public humiliation...) The photograph
accompanying this chapter it titled: "Vielleicht gab das zersplitterte
Glass Anlass zu dem "Spottnamen Reichskristall- nacht". (Perhaps the broken
glass was used to ridicule the pogrom).
Also see Arnold Paucker's "The Jews in Germany", Tuebingen: J.C.B.
Mohr, 1986, page 220: "Der Novemberpogrom, euphemistisch 'Kristallnacht'
genannt, war der Anfang vom Ende..." (The Novemberpogrom, euphemistically
named "Crystal Night" was the beginning of the end.)
There are additional sources, but I hope the above will serve to
illustrate the fact that, except for the United States, The November Pogrom
appears to be the established term./blockquote>
Walter Pehle makes the following observation:
It is clear that the term Crystal Night serves to foster a vicious
minimalizing of its memory, a discounting of grave reality: such cynical
appellations function to reinterpret manslaughter and murder, arson,
robbery, plunder, and massive property damage, transforming these into a
glistening event marked by sparkle and gleam. Of course, such terms reveal
one thing in stark clarity - the lack of any sense of involvement or
feeling of sympathy on the part of those who had stuck their heads in the
sand before that violent night.
With good reason, knowledgeable commentators urge people to
renounce the continued use of "Kristallnacht" and "Reichskristall- nacht"
to refer to these events, even if the expressions have become slick and
established usage in our language. (Pehle, W. H., 'Editor's Preface' in
Pehle, W. H. (ed.) November 1938, From Reichskristall- nacht to Genocide,
Berg Publishers Inc., NY, 1991, pp. vii-viii (English edition)
So, it appears, the term "Kristallnacht" or "Crystal Night" was
invented by Nazis to mock Jews on that black November night in 1938. It is,
therefore, another example of Nazi perversion. There are numerous other
examples of this same tendency in the language of the Nazi perpetrators:
Sonderbehandlung ("special treatment") for gassing victims, Euthanasie for
a policy of mass murder of retarded or physically handicapped patients,
"Arbeit Macht Frei" (Work Makes you Free) over the entrance to Auschwitz.
When the Nazis launched their plan to annihilate the remaining Jews in
Poland in the fall of 1943, they called it "Erntefest," or Harvest
Festival. While this may have been a code word, as Froma Zeitlin has
observed, it had the same grim and terrible irony that is reflected in
Kristallnacht as in so many other instances of the perverted uses of
language in the Third Reich. Perhaps most cynical of all is the use of the
term, "Endloesung der Judenfrage" (Final Solution of the Jewish Question),
for what is now known as the Holocaust. Goebbels frequently used such
terminology to amuse his audiences (usually other Nazi officials) and to
further demoralize his victims.
On the other side of this controversy are those who argue that the term
should be retained. In the first place, it is the term which has been used
now for fifty years and connotes significant meaning to those who study the
Holocaust. As Froma Zeitlin (in a message posted to HOLOCAUS Internet
Discussion Group in June, 1995) observes:
But I would like to point out that whether or not the name came
into existence as a Nazi euphemism or not, the event itself and what it has
come to signify has transformed an 'innocent' name into one of
unforgettable and dramatic meaning. The term is permanently out of
circulation for any other use whatsoever. Can you imagine us now using
'Kristallnacht' to refer to some street riot or another, no matter how
extensively the streets were littered with broken glass? Certainly not.
Moreover, what disturbed the German populace was less the sight of
synagogues burning (fires take place all the time, after all -- it depends
on the scale) than of the savage and wasteful vandalism that confronted
bystanders everywhere, disrupting the clean and orderly streets (to say
nothing of consumer convenience). What was indeed memorable was the sheer
quantity of broken glass. A third point was the economic outcome of this
massive breakage. Germany didn't produce enough plate glass to repair the
damages (synagogues did not have to be replaced -- quite the contrary). The
result was twofold: the need to import glass from Belgium (for sorely
needed cash) and the outrage of indemnifying the Jewish community to pay
for the damages. So the broken glass came to assume yet another outrageous
dimension in the wake of the event.
Paul Lawrence Rose, Penn State University, agrees with the retention of
the term "Kristallnacht" instead of "pogrom" or some other term and makes
the following observation:
Of course, K-nacht was a pogrom of sorts, but it was a German event
and more specifically still, a Nazi event. Replacing it with pogrom
certainly sets it in the larger context of antisemitic massacres in
European history, but it loses the German and Nazi contexts.
And, as Zeitlin observes, the origins of terms do not equal the
historical meanings that they accumulate. To have criticized Goering's use
of language in 1938 would have been appropriate; however, 1996 the term
kristallnacht carries the significance and power it has acquired over the
past fifty years.
http://www.aish.com/holocaust/overview/Kristallnacht.asp has additional pictures, details.
and http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=394679 is even juicier.
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