ZEN  and the ART of FUDGEMAKING

There's a lot of personal mastery as well as physical chemistry involved in making old fashioned chocolate fudge. The recipe calls for an eagle eye, an angel's hand. It also calls for a Rabbi's sense of justice, for if you cheat on the ingredients, you cheat your fudge recipients on joy.

FUDGEMAKING calls for the sternness of a loving parent, for one must protect the sugar from its self. Sugar always wants to turn back into crystals. You cannot let it. You've got to be buttering the sides of the steel, copper bottomed pan, so that crystals (which sugar WAS before you boiled it,) cannot climb the edges, scorch and form again. They will instead, roll back into the simmering pot.

The recipe is simple. Combine 1 cup milk (or half and half), two or three squares of bitter baking chocolate, 2 cups sugar and a tbsp of corn syrup (another way to confound the crystals that tend to form. TWO types of sugar mean the crystals can't easily form)

Then you simmer gently, at a very very slow heat until the temperature of the syrup reaches exactly 238 degrees F (at sea level, less if you're high in mountains with less atmospheric pressure, in which case consult a book! IT will be different!) At that point, you turn off the fire. Drop in the butter softly, a few tbsps, then cool the pot to lukewarm,  NOT TOUCHING or stirring it, just cooling to 115 degrees and then adding vanilla 2 tsps, and you slide the mixture quietly, softly into a buttered bowl, or onto a buttered slab of marble, pouring only the central, smooth part of the fudge into this new, clean receptacle, leaving all the dicey, maybe-slightly-crystallized stuff from bottom of pan or sides.....(giving the contaminated pan to your youthful assistants to be licked and scraped.) Then beat or paddle the pristine fudge gently until the surface shine disappears and at that second, let it set up.. Some let it harden on the marble where it was paddled. Some on a buttered plate. Some have added walnuts at this point. Some have a mass of sugar crystals on their hands but down below are insructions on how to remelt the stuff and try again. Do NOT throw the whole mess down the drain!

If you don't follow the cautions in the recipe -- i.e . a little corn syrup,. oiling the sides of the pan,  covering the pan for a few minutes early in the cooking process; taking it to exactly 238 degrees, never scraping the pan; not so much as moving or disturbing the candy until it's cooled; and not letting anything, even a speck of dust, fall into the cooling fudge -- just the butter but not stirring it, letting them cool together, and then adding vanilla, you are very likely to wind up with a coarse, gritty mass instead of creamy fudge! So FUDGE is a recipe that separates the masters from the maniacs.

Little Candymaker concepts: Sugar dissolves far less readily in cold liquids than in hot. There is no way that two cups of sugar will dissolve in a cup of milk at room temperature. Heating the sugar and milk mixture allows the milk to dissolve more and more sugar, and by the time the mixture is boiling, all the sugar is dissolved. The general principle is that at a particular temperature, a given solvent (in this case, milk) can dissolve only so much of a particular solute (sugar). When the milk has dissolved all the sugar it can hold, and there is still some undissolved sugar left, the mixture is said to be saturated. The higher the temperature, the more concentrated the saturated solution becomes.

Water (and milk) boil at 212 degrees F (100 degrees C) at sea level, but the sugar changes that. In general, a solid dissolved in a liquid makes it harder for the liquid molecules to escape. Consequently, the solution has to be hotter for the liquid molecules to get away at the same rate, and the boiling point rises.

In our fudge, the rise in boiling temperature is an exact function of the amount of sugar in the solution. Consequently, we can use the temperature of the boiling syrup to tell when enough water has boiled away to give the syrup the right ratio of sugar to water. For fudge and similar creamy candies, the syrup should boil at a temperature 26 degrees F (14 degrees C) hotter than the boiling point of plain water. When it reaches that heat, some of the initial water in the syrup has now boiled away. Because the sugar couldn't dissolve completely until the mixture was near boiling, the syrup reaches saturation very soon after it starts to cool. If you've done everything right, however, sugar does not come back out of solution. Instead, the syrup continues to cool as a super-saturated solution. The solid phase -- in this case, sugar -- cannot start to crystallize without something to serve as a pattern, or nucleus. You don't let a crystal get in the mix. Like off the edges of the pan. If a single sugar crystal is present, the syrup will start to crystallize, the crystals will grow steadily as the syrup continues to cool, and the result will be very grainy fudge.

This is why most fudge recipes require that the sides of the pot be oiled early in the cooking process. Also useful, putting the lid on the pan for about three minutes during the beginning of the boiling, to allow steam to remove any sugar crystals clinging to the container walls. It is also why the recipes specify that the sides and bottom of the pan should not be scraped into the bowl where the candy is to cool. There is too much chance of scraping in a stray sugar crystal! POUR the hot fudge out into another bowl. What is left in the pan is for cooks and their children to nibble!

As the cooling syrup gets more and more supersaturated, its tendency to crystallize becomes even stronger. Even a speck of dust can start the process if all the candy contains is sugar, milk, and chocolate. Using more than one kind of sugar can counter this tendency. Most fudge recipes contain either corn syrup (which contains glucose instead of the sucrose of table sugar) or cream of tartar (which breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose). The different sugars tend to interfere with each other's crystallization and minimize the chance that the candy will crystallize too soon. They must be used in moderation, however -- too much and the fudge will remain a thick syrup forever!

The final stage is stirring the syrup when it is lukewarm to promote  FINE crystallization all at once throughout the candy. Disturbing (stirring) a very supersaturated solution causes many crystals to form at once. Because they compete with each other for the dissolved sugar, none can grow very large. The result is the proper creamy texture of fudge and the change in appearance from shiny (supercooled liquid) to dull (a mass of very tiny crystals).

Do it right and your fudge will be creamy like peanut butter. Do it wrong.....it's still very tasty, just doesn't feel right on the tongue. Like beach sand kind of.  BUT I FIND NOTHING WRONG with the crunch of freshly toasted almonds or walnuts. OR PECANS!  This could turn superb fudge into HEAVEN! 

REMEDIAL FUDGEMAKING 101

You've made a batch of fudge and after cooling to room
temperature it still flows. Now you're on the internet trying to
fix the sticky situation you've gotten yourself into.

If just anyone could make fudge then everyone would be doing
it... but as you've (and I've) experienced it can be
heartbreaking. So what can be done for fluid fudge?

* BREAK GLASS IN CASE OF EMERGENCY ONLY -

If the fudge is too hard then you've generally boiled too long or
didn't reduce the boiling point for your altitude (so at Las
Vegas, NV (elevation about 1500 ft) the 234F would be reduced by
3F so you'd stop at 231F). Generally people don't complain if
the fudge is too hard. To soften the fudge up you can expose it
to a moist environment - like placing a moist paper towel in a
plastic bag... poke a few holes in it... then store the fudge and
bag in an air-tight container for a few days.

The recipe solution to hard fudge is to add about 1/4 to 1/2 cup
of corn syrup to the recipe (or an equivalent amount of honey)
the next time you make the fudge. These sugars act to "impede"
the crystalization process making the fudge slightly softer.

If the fudge is too soft then you're "out of ratio." Too much
liquid. The balance of solid to liquid is crucial. I generally
like to see recipes with a ratio of liquid (milk, cream, corn
syrup) to sugar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5. It's kind of a rough
rule of thumb. [For purists, I consider corn syrup and
marshmallow creme as a 'half liquid-half solid'.] So when your
fudge is soft you need to either:

A. Add More Sugars/Solid
B. Remove More Liquid/Moisture

Rarely is any one ingredient that resulted in failure. No
guarantees... but consider the following before you toss that
treasure into the waste can:

BOIL OPTION:

A. Prepare a 2-quart saucepan by spraying the sides with Crisco
or PAM.
B. Place the entire contents of the fluid fudge into the
saucepan. Warm on LOW heat for about 5 minutes.
C. Increase the temperature to MEDIUM and bring to a rolling
boil.
D. Boil for an additional 3 minutes stirring intermittently.
E. At the end of the boil add one of the following (in order of
preference):
o 1/2 cup chocolate chips (semi-sweet or milk chocolate)
o 1 tsp cream of tartar
o 1/2 cup powdered sugar
o 1 tsp corn starch
o 1/4 cup light corn syrup
F. Stir until creamy and let set for a few minutes. Once it
begins to thicken up then pour back into a prepared pan. The
nuts and other additives will settle to the bottom so you
may want to mix it again -- at the risk of inducing sugar
granules - after a few minutes of cooling.

BAKE OPTION:

A. Pre-heat the oven to 250F.
B. Place the pan of fudge-liquid into the oven. Cook for 15-45
minutes. Stir gently every 15 minutes with a metal spoon.
C. When the fudge on the metal spoon sets at room temperature,
remove from the oven and cool quickly to room temperature.

You might be able to make a silk purse out of a sow's ear - you
may not be able to rescue a fudge gone astray. My prayers are
with you.

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Definitions

Fudge Failure
Failure of the fudge to set. The objective standard by which
failure is measured is this: after the fudge has cooled a
small square is cut from one corner. If after an hour the
remaining fudge has shifted into the missing square area
then the fudge is considered a 'failure.' Typically this is
the time the stories begin... What went wrong? What could I
do differently? Did anyone see me make this stuff? Who can
I blame?

Fudge is meant to be sent to friends and relatives. Sure,
you make some for yourself, but really you should spread the
love around and get the fudge out to others. This means
using the US Postal Service. Fluid Fudge will make a mess of
any package in which you sent it.

Fluid Fudge
Failure of the fudge to set and you try to mask the problem
by putting in the refrigerator (or freezer) in a futile
attempt to fix it. It gets firm enough to cut when cool but
then begins to resemble a squashed bug as it warms to room
temperature. This is typically (but not exclusively) the
result of way too much butter, too high a water content, or
the substitution of an inferior margarine for superior
butter.

Fudge Disaster
A fudge disaster is not the same as a fudge failure... it's
something much worse. Fudge Disaster is a fudge which should
never have been made in the first place. These disasters
come in three (3) grades.

Grade I: Fudge which tastes bad but doesn't set.
Grade II: Fudge which tastes bad but does set.
Grade III: Fudge which tastes bad, sets, and was sent out by
the US Postal Service to a valued friend or relative.

Fudge which doesn't set is unlikely to be given away so it
poses little risk. Fudge which sets is at risk of being sent
out but if you taste it (be honest now) you'd never send it
out. Bad tasting fudge which sets and is sent out can be a
time bomb. Words of Wisdom: Regardless of the time, expense,
or good intent - DON'T send out bad fudge. You will regret
it. (And don't feed it to the dog, it's not good for them.
Cats won't eat fudge as they're smart. It would kill them.
THE ONLY thing to do with bad fudge is buy a quart of vanilla
ice cream, serve it to your guests, then bring the bad fudge,
heated to the boiling point in and with exclamations of great
affection, pour it over their ice cream and follow it with a great
big glob of whipped cream. These people will rave about your
cooking for years afterwards, and NOBODY will be the wiser.
 

Faux Fudge
False (fake) Fudge. Also called "Pseudo-Fudge" or "No-Fail
Fudge" or "Fail-Proof Fudge." Also called "Frosting" or
"melted Chocolate Chips." These are confections (and some of
them okay) which are not true fudges. A Fudge, by
definition, requires a sugar, a liquid, and a flavoring. I
could butter a Hershey bar and sprinkle sugar on it. Would
that make it a fudge? No. The broader definition requires
the Big Three components, but also requires a boil, the
creation of a 'set-able' sugar slurry, and separate flavor
base. Most of what passes for Fudge is either a Frosting, a
Fondant, or a Flavor Base (like Chocolate Chips) with nuts.

Fondant
This is an icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which is
cooked to a specific temperature and then kneaded to a
smooth, soft paste. This paste can then be colored or
flavored and used as an icing for cakes and petit fours.

Opera Fudge
This confection qualifies as a fudge in that it contains
sugar, butter, and a flavoring agent. It doesn't contain a
major flavoring agent (such as chocolate chips) but a minor
flavoring agent (such as vanilla, mint, or rum). It has a
whitish-tan cast but should not be mistaken for White
Chocolate Fudge. Optional helpers can be used as normal.
Think of this fudge as your link to the 1800's before
Chocolate Chips (and chocolate for that matter) made it to
the masses.

Evaporated Milk
Basically milk which has been boiled down so that there's
less water (60% of the water removed). Instead of 2% milk
consider it 6% milk (I don't know the actual percentage).
This is a convenient vehicle for the milk proteins with less
water.

Sweetened Condensed Milk
Is like evaporated milk (about 50-60% water removed) but
with gobs of sugar added. This makes a milky slurry similar
in consistency to honey. Milk proteins, dissolved sugars,
and little water.
 

Butter
Made from milk fat and containing 80% fat and the remaining
20% is moisture and milk solids. Lends good flavor to baked
goods and things like fudge.

Margarine
Like butter, margarine contains both fats (70-80%) and
solids (20-30%). Instead of milk fat, however, vegetable oil
is used making the consistency different depending upon the
cooking conditions. [Experiment: Take a margarine stick and
put it in a clear measuring up. Warm it in the microwave
until liquid and let settle. You'll find that 20-30% of
solids will settle in the bottom and 70-80% of liquid
(vegetable oil) will rest on top. If you do the same with
butter, you'll also get a layer of solids and a liquid layer
on top. This liquid layer is called 'clarified butter' and
is much more flavorful than vegetable oil.] MY ADVICE?
SKIP IT. MARGARINE is bad for you and tastes bad.
WHAT IS THE POINT?

Whipping Cream
The fatty layer skimmed off the top of milk and contains
20-40% milk fats. Half-and-half (Light Cream) contains less
fat, only 10-30%. Whipping cream is often used with other
milks to create a smooth, rich sugar slurry.

Cream of Tartar
This white powder is the by-product of grape fermentation
and is used to stabilize whipped egg whites, meringues,
angel food cakes, and marshmallow cremes. It is the major
component of Baking Powder.

Marshmallow
A confection made from corn syrup, egg whites, gelatin, and
other agents. Typically dusted with powdered sugar.
Marshmallow creme is marshmallow which has not been "puffed"
to dry it's surface. Previously marshmallow was made from
the root of the Mallow plant. In today's society, no Mallows
are killed in the production of marshmallows - mini or
otherwise.

Corn Syrup (& Others)
Sugar in another form: corn syrup, maple syrup, molasses,
cane syrup, sorghum, and others. Instead of sucrose (table
sugar) it is another kind of sugar molecule (i.e., dextrose
and others) but doesn't meet the FDA definitions of refined
sugar so it's not called "sugar." [Substitutes: If you don't
have corn syrup you can substitute (1 cup extra-fine
granulated sugar + 1/4 cup liquid for (1 cup corn syrup).]

Rolling Boil
A boil which cannot be stirred down. In essence, the whole
solution is boiling, not just one hot part of the mixture. A
common mistake in fudge making is to call the first sign of
a boil as the beginning of the boil. Thus the mix is
under-boiled and too much water results... fudge failure.
 

Ripening
During storage the fudge will become softer and take on a
more velvet like texture. This usually begins after the
first 24 hours. It must be kept in an air-tight container in
order for ripening to occur.

Penuche Fudge
Penuche fudge is a basic fudge with no flavoring agents
except vanilla. What makes it a unique taste is that the
sugar is composed of a 50/50 mix of brown sugar and refined
granulated sugar. Brown sugar is the same as white sugar but
with less molasses removed.

Thrown
To create by the interaction of two or more components. The
process of making fudge is called 'throwing' fudge. This
term is also used in reference to livestock, "that cow
throws good calves."

Cast or Toss
To pour into its final mold. Usually fudge is cast into a
9"x9" glass dish. Some have tried nifty tricks like putting
a rounded tablespoon of the thrown fudge into cupcake cups
(lightly buttered).
 

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Emergency Substitutions

Emergency substitutions only. Don't use these combinations unless
all sense of decency has been lost.

Component Amount Substitute
6 oz. Semi-Sweet Chocolate Chips + 6
Chocolate Chips oz. Any Other Flavored Chips. This
Mixes 12 oz allows for variations in flavor
without having to modify any other
components (such as butter).
Sweetened Condensed (1/3) cup Evaporated Milk with (1/3)
Milk 2/3 cup cup Extra Fine Granulated Sugar
(1/3) cup Sweetened Condensed Milk
Evaporated Milk 2/3 cup with (1/3) cup Regular Milk.
Decrease the amount of sugar by 1/2
cup.

Unsweetened Baking 1 oz. 3 Tbl. Hershey's Cocoa or Hershey's
Chocolate square European Style Cocoa + 1 tsp.
shortening or oil
12 Tbl. Hershey's Cocoa or Hershey's
Semi-Sweet Chocolate 12 oz. European Style Cocoa + 14 tsp. sugar
chips
+ 1/2 cup shortening

Sweet Baking 4 oz. 3 Tbl. Hershey's Cocoa or Hershey's
Chocolate square European Style Cocoa + 4 1/2 Tbl.
sugar + 3 Tbl. shortening

Doubling, Halving, and Tripling the recipes should
be undertaken cautiously. Boiling times - if based
upon time - will NOT be accurate. Using the techniques I've
described on the previous page(s) should be applicable no matter
how much you mess with the recipe. However, if you're new to
Fudge then stick with the original recipe.

Component Amount Substitute
2 cups of Mini-Marshmallows or 20
Regular Sized Marshmallows.
Marshmallow Creme 7 oz (1 Marshmallows contain gelatin so may
jar)
not be acceptable to vegetarians and
make the fudge slightly "chewier."
 
 

Microwave Melting Guidelines

Times may vary depending upon the your particular microwave
wattage.

Chocolate or Chip Amount Directions
Microwave on HIGH 90 seconds then stir.
Semi-Sweet Chocolate If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
Chips 12 oz second intervals until melted when
stirred.
Microwave on HIGH 60 seconds then stir.
Baking Chocolate, If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
Semi-Sweet 2 oz. second intervals until melted when
stirred.
Microwave on HIGH 60 seconds then stir.
Baking Chocolate, If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
Unsweetened 2 oz. second intervals until melted when
stirred.
White Chips, Microwave on HIGH 60 seconds then stir.
Butterscotch Chips, If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
or Peanut Butter 10 oz. second intervals until melted when
Chips stirred.
Microwave on HIGH 60 seconds then stir.
Milk Chocolate Chips 11.5 If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
oz. second intervals until melted when
stirred.
Microwave on HIGH 90 seconds then stir.
Semi-Sweet Chocolate If necessary, microwave on HIGH at 15
Chunks 10 oz. second intervals until melted when
stirred.

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High Altitude Corrections
If you don't know your elevation above sea level -
call your city hall or your local librarian.
Adjustments to boiling temperatures and times depend upon the
altitude.

High altitude cooking alter the boiling point and
the amount of water available. The two basic
adjustments include:

* Increased boiling times
* Alterations in the proportions of leavenings. (Does not
apply to fudge.)

Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
Therefore the boiling point drops ( water boils at less than
212F). [For high altitude boiling reduce the 234F by 2F for
each 1,000 feet above sea level. Boil using the same parameters.
- Got this from a cooking book and I cook at sea level so I can't
confirm these numbers.]

GUIDE FOR COOKIE/CAKE BAKING AT HIGH ALTITUDES (DOES NOT APPLY TO
FUDGE)

Adjustment for 3000 feet:

* Reduce baking powder: for each tsp., decrease 1/8 tsp.
* Reduce sugar: for each cup, decrease 0 to 1 Tbsp.
* Increase liquid: for each cup, add 1 to 2 Tbsp.

Adjustment for 5000 feet:

* Reduce baking powder: for each tsp., decrease 1/8 to 1/4
tsp.
* Reduce sugar: for each cup, decrease 0 to 2 Tbsp.
* Increase liquid: for each cup, add 2 to 4 Tbsp.

Adjustment for 7000 feet:

* Reduce baking powder: for each tsp., decrease 1/4 tsp.
* Reduce sugar: for each cup, decrease 1 to 3 Tbsp.
* Increase liquid: for each cup, add 3 to 4 Tbsp.

Adjustment for over 7000 feet:

* What are you crazy? Drive to a lower elevation and bake
there.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE

Confectionery history has a record of at least 4,000 years, when Egyptians displayed their pleasures on papyrus. Sweetmeats were
being sold in the marketplace in 1566 BC. Yet chocolate didn't appear on the scene until the ancient Aztec and Mayan cultures
discovered the value of the cacao plant. It is reputed to have originated in the Amazon or Orinoco basin.

In 600 A.D. the Mayans migrated into the northern regions of South America, establishing the earliest known cocoa plantations
in the Yucatan.

It has been argued that the Mayans had been familiar with cocoa several centuries prior to this date. They considered it a
valuable commodity, used both as a means of payment and as units of calculation.

Mayans and Aztecs took beans from the "cacao" tree and made a drink they called "xocoatl." Aztec Indian legend held that cacao
seeds had been brought from Paradise and that wisdom and power came from eating the fruit of the cacao tree.

Ancient chronicles report that the Aztecs, believing that the god Quetzalcoatl traveled to earth on a beam of the Morning Star with
a cacao tree from Paradise, took his offering to the people. They learned from Quetzalcoatl how to roast and grind the cacao seeds,
making a nourishing paste that could be dissolved in water. They added spices and called this drink "chocolatl," or bitter-water,
and believed it brought universal wisdom and knowledge.

The word "chocolate" is said to derive from the Mayan "xocoatl"; "cocoa" from the Aztec "cacahuatl." The Mexican Indian word
"chocolate" comes from a combination of the terms choco ("foam") and atl ("water"); early chocolate was only consumed in beverage form. As part of a ritual in twelfth-century Mesoamerican  marriages, a mug of the frothy chocolate was shared.

Arthur W. Knapp, author of The Cocoa and Chocolate Industry (Pitman, 1923) points out that if we believe Mexican mythology,
"chocolate was consumed by the Gods in Paradise, and the seed of cocoa was conveyed to man as a special blessing by the God of the Air."

Ancient Mexicans believed that Tonacatecutli, the goddess of food, and Calchiuhtlucue, the goddess of water, were guardian
goddesses of cocoa. Each year they performed human sacrifices for the goddesses, giving the victim cocoa at his last meal.

Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) was dissatisfied with the word "cocoa," so renamed it "theobroma," Greek for "food
of the gods."

Christopher Columbus is said to have brought back cacao beans to  King Ferdinand from his fourth visit to the New World, but they were overlooked in favor of the many other treasures he had found.

Chocolate was first noted in 1519 when Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez visited the court of Emperor Montezuma of Mexico. American historian William Hickling's History of the Conquest of Mexico  (1838) reports that Montezuma "took no other beverage than the chocolatl, a potation of chocolate, flavored with vanilla and spices, and so prepared as to be reduced to a froth of the consistency of honey, which gradually dissolved in the mouth and was taken cold." The fact that Montezuma consumed his "chocolatl" in goblets before entering his harem led to the belief that it was an aphrodisiac.

In 1528 Cortez brought chocolate back from Mexico to the royal court of King Charles V. Monks, hidden away in Spanish
monasteries, processed the cocoa beans and kept chocolate a secret for nearly a century. It made a profitable industry for
Spain, which planted cocoa trees in its overseas colonies.

It took an Italian traveler, Antonio Carletti, to discover the chocolate treasure in 1606 and take it into other parts of
Europe.

"With the decline of Spain as a power, the secret of cacao leaked out at last, and the Spanish Crown's monopoly of the chocolate
trade came to an end. In a few years the knowledge of it had spread through France, Italy, Germany, and England." (The Nestle
Company, Inc., White Plains, New York, The History of Chocolate and Cocoa, p. 2.)

When the Spanish Princess Maria Theresa was betrothed to Louis XIV of France in 1615, she gave her fiance an engagement gift of chocolate, packaged in an elegantly ornate chest. Their marriage was symbolic of the marriage of chocolate in the Spanish-Franco culture.

The first chocolate house was reputedly opened in London in 1657 by a Frenchman. Costing 10 to 15 shillings per pound, chocolate was considered a beverage for the elite class. Sixteenth-century Spanish historian Oviedo noted: "None but the rich and noble could afford to drink chocolatl as it was literally drinking money. Cocoa passed currency as money among all nations; thus a rabbit in Nicaragua sold for 10 cocoa nibs, and 100 of these seeds could buy a tolerably good slave."

Chocolate also appears to have been used as a medicinal remedy by leading physicians of the day. Christopher Ludwig Hoffmann's treatise Potus Chocolate recommends chocolate for many diseases, citing it as a cure for Cardinal Richelieu's ills.

Chocolate traveled to the Low Countries with the Duke of Alba. By 1730, it had dropped in price from $3 per lb to being within the
financial reach of those other than the very wealthy. The invention of the cocoa press in 1828 helped further to cut prices
and improve the quality of chocolate by squeezing out some of the cocoa butter and giving the beverage a smoother consistency.

With the Industrial Revolution came the mass production of chocolate, spreading its popularity among the citizenry.

Discussing the introduction of coffee, tea, and cocoa into
Europe, Isaac Disraeli (1791-1834) wrote in his six-volume
Curiosities of Literature: "Chocolate the Spaniards brought from
Mexico, where it was deno minated chocolatl. It was a coarse
mixture of ground cacao and Indian corn with roucou; but the
Spaniards, liking its nourishment, improved it into a richer
compound with sugar, vanilla and other aromatics. We had
Chocolate houses in London long after coffee houses; they seemed
to have associated something more elegant and refined in their
new form when the other had become common."

Prince Albert's Exposition in 1851 in London was the first time
the United States was introduced to bonbons, chocolate creams,
hand candies (called "boiled sweets"), and caramels.

An 1891 publication on The Chocolate-Plant by Walter Baker & Co.
records that, "At the discovery of America, the natives of the
narrower portion of the continent bordering on the Caribbean Sea
were found in possession of two luxuries which have been
everywhere recognized as worthy of extensive cultivation; namely,
tobacco and chocolate."

Chocolate was introduced to the United States in 1765 when John
Hanan brought cocoa beans from the West Indies into Dorchester,
Massachusetts, to refine them with the help of Dr. James Baker.
The first chocolate factory in the country was established there.

Yet, chocolate wasn't really accepted by the American colonists
until fishermen from Gloucester, Massachusetts, accepted cocoa
beans as payment for cargo in tropical America.

Where chocolate was mostly considered a beverage for centuries,
and predominantly for men, it became recognized as an appropriate
drink for children in the seventeenth century. It had many
different additions: milk, wine, beer, sweeteners, and spices.
Drinking chocolate was considered a very fashionable social
event.

Eating chocolate was introduced in 1674 in the form of rolls and
cakes, served in the various chocolate emporiums.

In 1747 Frederick the Great issued an edict forbidding the
hawking of chocolate.

By 1795, Dr. Joseph Fry of Bristol, England, employed a steam
engine for grinding cocoa beans, an invention that led to the
manufacture of chocolate on a large scale. Around 1847, Fry &
Sons sold a "Chocolat Delicieux a Manger," which is thought to be
the first chocolate bar for eating.

Nestle (The History of Chocolate and Cocoa, p. 3) declares that
from 1800 to the present day, these four factors contributed to
chocolate's "coming of age" as a worldwide food product:

1. The introduction of cocoa powder in 1828;
2. The reduction of excise duties;
3. Improvements in transportation facilities, from plantation
to factory;
4. The invention of eating chocolate, and improvements in
manufacturing methods.

By the year 1810, Venezuela was producing half the world's
requirements for cocoa, and one-third of all the cocoa produced
in the world was being consumed by the Spaniards.

The invention of the cocoa press in 1828 by C.J. Van Houten, a
Dutch chocolate master, helped reduce the price of chocolate and
bring it to the masses. By squeezing out cocoa butter from the
beans, Van Houten's "dutching" was an alkalizing process.

In his 1923 volume The Cocoa and Chocolate Industry, Arthur W.
Knapp attributes the rise in popularity of cocoa to these
innovations:

1. The introduction by Van Houten of cocoa powder as we now
know it.
2. The reduction of the duty to a low figure which remained
constant for a number of years.
3. The great improvements that have taken place in the methods
of transport.
4. Improvements in the manufacture of eating chocolate.

Daniel Peter of Vevey, Switzerland, experimented for eight years
before finally inventing a means of making milk chocolate for
eating in 1876. He brought his creation to a Swiss firm that
today is the world's largest producer of chocolate: Nestle.

In 1879 Rodolphe Lindt of Berne, Switzerland, produced chocolate
that melted on the tongue. He invented "conching," a means of
heating and rolling chocolate to refine it. The name was derived
from a Greek term meaning "sea shell" and refered to the shape of
old mixing vats where particles in the chocolate mixture were
reduced to a fine texture. After chocolate had been conched for
72 hours and had more cocoa butter added to it, the original
"fondant" was created.

Cadbury Brothers displayed eating chocolate in 1849 at an
exhibition in Bingley Hall at Birmingham, England.

Swiss confiseur Jules Sechaud of Montreux introduced a process
for manufacturing filled chocolates in 1913.

The New York Cocoa Exchange, located at the World Trade Center,
was begun October 1, 1925, so that buyers and sellers could get
together for transactions.

Brazil and the Ivory Coast are leaders in the cocoa bean belt,
accounting for nearly half of the world's cocoa.

While the United States leads the world in cocoa bean importation
and chocolate production, Switzerland continues as the leader in
per capita chocolate consumption.

In 1980 a story of chocolate espionage hit the world press when
an apprentice of the Swiss company of Suchard-Tobler
unsuccessfully attempted to sell secret chocolate recipes to
Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, and other countries.

By the 1990s, chocolate had proven its popularity as a product,
and its success as a big business. Annual world consumption of
cocoa beans averages approximately 600,000 tons, and per capita
chocolate consumption is greatly on the rise. Chocolate
manufacturing in the United States is a multibillion-dollar
industry. According to Norman Kolpas (1978, p. 106), "We have
seen how chocolate progressed from a primitive drink and food of
ancient Latin American tribes -- a part of their religious,
commerce and social life -- to a drink favored by the elite of
European society and gradually improved until it was incomparably
drinkable and, later, superbly edible. We have also followed its
complex transformation from the closely packed seeds of the fruit
of an exotic tree to a wide variety of carefully manufactured
cocoa and chocolate products. Beyond the historical,
agricultural, commercial, and culinary sides to chocolate, others
affect on our health and beauty, and inspiration to literature
and the arts."

HOLISTIC VIEW OF CHOCOLATE - YOU CAN MAKE DATE FUDGE with real, thick CHOCOLATE. See, the deal is, CHOCOLATE is good for you.  Sugar is not. Milk is half way OK. Use dates, rice bran syrup or stevia to sweeten regular, bitter baker's chocolate, add black coffee, and you have a highly medicinal candy or add enough liquid, a drink that will alleviate depression. The widow's brew. Taken in the morning, especially in winter, it has no injurious effects. Taken late in the day, it will impede sleep. Even without the coffee in it. You will wake at four a.m. unable to go back to sleep. This is what ruins your health. LACK OF SLEEP not chocolate!

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